obsono.org
Innovative Resources for Fractional Limb Volume, Fetal Echocardiography, and Individualized Growth Assessment
Resource Links
Individualized Growth Assessment Program (iGAP)
iGAP simplifies the analysis of fetal growth by specifying 2nd trimester size models that are used to personalize assessment of 3rd TM growth. This software development was a result of collaboration between Baylor College of Medicine, Beaumont Hospital Systems, and the Perinatology Research Branch of the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.

A General Overview of iGAP, Case Examples of how to use the program, and free software can be found by visiting the link: https://igap.research.bcm.edu


This 8 megabyte Quicktime video clip demonstrates how fractional limb volume can be measured using 4D View Software (GE Healthcare).

References
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Battaglia FC, Lubchenco LO. A practical application of newborn infants by weight and gestational age. J Pediatr;71:159-63,1967. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6029463

Beattie RB, Johnson P. Practical assessment of neonatal nutrition status beyond birth weight: an imperative for the 1990s. Br J Obstet Gynaecol;101:842-6,1994. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7999684

Khoury FR, Stetzer B, Myers SA, Mercer B. Comparison of estimated fetal weights using volume and 2-dimensional sonography and their relationship to neonatal markers of fat. J Ultrasound Med 2009;28:309-15 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19244066

Lee W, Balasubramaniam M, Deter RL, Hassan S, Gotsch F, Kusanovic JP, Goncalves LF, Romero R. Fractional limb volume: a soft tissue parameter of fetal body composition. Validation, technical considerations, and normal ranges during pregnancy. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;33:427-440. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19253340

Lee W, Balasubramaniam M, Deter RL, Hassan SS, Gotsch F, Kusanovic JP, Goncalves LF, Romero R. Fetal growth parameters and birth weight: their relationship to newborn infant body composition. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;33:441-446. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19253324

Lee W, Balasubramaniam M, Deter RL, McNie B, Powell MD, Espinoza J, Romero R. Do soft tissue parameters improve weight estimation for fetal macrosomia? Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2007;30:480. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/116317916/abstract

Lee W, Balasubramaniam M, Deter RL, McNie B, Powell MD, Gonçalves LF, Espinoza J, Romero R. Soft tissue parameters improve the precision of fetal weight estimation. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2006;28:389. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/112774257/abstract

Lee W, Balasubramaniam M, Deter RL, Yeo L, Hassan SS, Gotsch F, Kusanovic JP, Goncalves LF, Romero R. New fetal weight estimation models using fractional limb volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;34:556-65 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19725080

Lee W, Deter R, Sangi-Haghpeykar H, Yeo L, Romero R. Prospective validation of fetal weight estimation using fractional limb volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2013;41:198-203. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22605519

Lee W, Deter RL, Ebersole JD, Huang R, Blanckaert K, Romero R. Birth weight prediction by three-dimensional ultrasonography: fractional limb volume. J Ultrasound Med 2001;20:1283-92. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11762540

Lee W, Deter RL, McNie B, Goncalves LF, Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T, Balasubramaniam M, Romero R. The fetal arm: individualized growth assessment in normal pregnancies. J Ultrasound Med;24:817-828, 2005. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15914686

Lee W, Deter RL, McNie B, Goncalves LF, Espinoza J, Chaiworapongsa T, Romero R. Individualized growth assessment of fetal soft tissue using fractional thigh volume. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol;24:766-774, 2004. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15586365

Lee W, Riggs T, Amula V, Tsimis M, Cutler N, Bronsteen R, Comstock CH Fetal echocardiography: z-score reference ranges for a large patient population. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2010; 35: 28-34. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20014329

Lee W, Riggs T, Koo W, Deter RL, Yeo L, Romero R. The relationship of newborn adiposity to fetal growth outcome based on birth weight or the modified neonatal growth assessment score. J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2012;25):1933-40. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22494346

Lindell G, Marsal K. Sonographic fetal weight estimation in prolonged pregnancy: comparative study of two- and three-dimensional methods. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2009;33:295-300. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19180582

Moyer-Mileur LJ, Slater H, Thomson JA, Mihalopoulos N, Byrne J, Varner MW. Newborn adiposity measured by plethysmography is not predicted by late gestation two-dimensional ultrasound measures of fetal growth. J Nutr 2009;139:1772-8 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19640967

O'Connor C, O'Higgins A, Doolan A, Segurado R, Stuart B, Turner MJ, Kennelly MM. Birth Weight and Neonatal Adiposity Prediction Using Fractional Limb Volume Obtained with 3D Ultrasound. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24924878

Pagani G, Palai N, Zatti S, Fratelli N, Prefumo F, Frusca T. Fetal weight estimation in gestational diabetic pregnancies: comparison between conventional and three-dimensional fractional thigh volume methods using gestation-adjusted projection. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol 2014;43:72-6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23494762

Schwartz J, Galan H. Ultrasound in assessment of fetal growth disorders: is there a role for subcutaneous measurements. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol:22:329-335, 2003. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14528466

Srisantiroj N, Chanprapaph P, Komoltri C. Fractional thigh volume by three-dimensional ultrasonography for birth weight prediction. J Med Assoc Thai 2009;92:1580-5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20043557

Yang F, Leung K, Hou YW, Yuan Y, Tang MH. 3D birth weight prediction by fractional thigh volume at term gestation in a Chinese population. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Jan 24. doi: 10.1002/uog.8945. [Epub ahead of print] http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21308831

External Links
Official journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

ISUOG's official journal, Ultrasound in Obstetrics and Gynecology (UOG), also known as the White Journal, is recognised as the leading peer-reviewed journal on imaging within the field of obstetrics and gynecology, publishing important research from all parts of the world. The Impact Factor for 2012 is 3.557

Z-scores indicate how many standard deviations an observation is above or below the mean, especially if the data is normally distributed. If every value of AVol or TVol in a distribution is converted to its z-score, the transformed scores will have a mean of zero and a standard deviation of 1. The normal z-score range spans from -2 to +2. For further information, this web link explains more about the theory of z-scores for this purpose.

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